Animal ethics: a critical approach to the Ethics of Qajar period travel writers, The case of animal slaughter

Document Type : Review Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy and Theology, Religions and Mysticism. Faculty of Theology and Religions. Shahid Beheshti University . Tehran .Iran

2 PhD student of Islamic ethics, University of Quran and Hadith, Tehran. Iran.



The Qajar period is one of the most important periods in Iran's contemporary history and the peak of the presence of Europeans in Iran. During this period, European travel writers visited Iran as personal journey and sometimes as delegations from European superpowers. These people have included tourists, doctors, political and economic figures and even religious missionaries. In their reports, travel writers have pointed out the violation of animal rights, for example, they have quoted reports of animal slaughter during Muharram and Eids and considered this deprivation of life as one of the cases of violation of animal right  .This research aims to answer the question, is this accusation and  misunderstanding of travel writers of animal rights violation true? This hypothesis is followed that the travel writers, first of all, have expressed these reports with bad intentions. Secondly, due to the intertwining of jurisprudence, theology and  ethics in the Islamic tradition, it is not possible to create a clear boundary between moral and theological arguments in the case of animal slaughter, and on the other hand, Islam allows humans to use animals, but it has established rights and manners for animals. It is obligatory for everyone to observe it. The method of writing this article; Descriptive, based on the reports of Qajar period travel writers, and then analytical method, based on Islamic principles, in response to the misconceptions of travel writers. This article considers it important to remove this doubt and the accusation of the European travel writers against the Muslim Iranians of the Qajar period.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

اخلاق حیوانات: رویکردی انتقادی به اخلاق پژوهی سفرنامه نویسان دوره قاجار در مورد ذبح حیوانات

Authors [Persian]

  • مریم خوشدل روحانی 1
  • علی بلوردی 2
1 استادیار گروه فلسفه و کلام، ادیان و عرفان. دانشکده الهیات و ادیان. دانشگاه شهید بهشتی. تهران، ایران.
2 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه قرآن و حدیث
Abstract [Persian]

دوره قاجار از مهم‌ترین دوره‌های تاریخ معاصر ایران و اوج حضور اروپاییان در ایران است. در این دوره سفرنامه‌نویسان اروپایی به‌صورت سیاحت شخصی و گاه به‌صورت هیئت‌های اعزامی از سوی ابرقدرت‌های اروپایی در ایران حضور پیدا می‌کردند. این افراد شامل سیاحان، پزشکان، شخصیت‌های سیاسی و اقتصادی و حتی میسیونرهای مذهبی بوده‌اند، سفرنامه‌نویسان هر کدام باانگیزه و بینشی خاص، بنا بر روحیه و جنبه فرهنگی و اجتماعی خود و درحالی‌که فرهنگ سرزمین خود را به همراه دارند به بررسی وضعیت طبیعی جغرافیایی تاریخی، اجتماعی، سیاسی و فرهنگی محل سفر خود می‌پردازند، سفرنامه‌نویسان در گزارش‌های خود بر تضییع حقوق حیوانات اشاره کرده‌اند، برای نمونه گزارشاتی از ذبح حیوانات در ایام محرم و اعیاد نقل کرده و این سلب حیات را یکی از موارد تضییع حقوق حیوانات دانسته‌اند. این پژوهش در صدد پاسخ‌گویی به این سؤال است که آیا این اتهام و سوءبرداشت سفرنامه‌نویسان از تضییع حقوق حیوانات درست است؟ این فرضیه دنبال می‌شود که سفرنامه‌نویسان، اولا با اهدا ف و اغراض سوء این گزارشات را بیان کرده اند. ثانیا به دلیل درهم‌تنیدگی فقه و کلام و اخلاق در سنت اسلامی ایجاد مرز مشخص بین ادله اخلاقی و کلامی در مرضوع ذبح حیوانات امکان‌پذیر نیست و از طرفی هم اسلام، انسان را مجاز به استفاده از حیوانات می داند، ولی برای حیوانات حقوق و آداب اخلاقی قرار داده است که رعایت آن بر همگان واجب است. روش نگارش این نوشتار؛ توصیفی، بر اساس گزارش‌های سفرنامه‌نویسان دوران قاجار و سپس از روش تحل

Keywords [Persian]

  • کلیدواژگان: سفرنامه‌نویسان
  • دوره قاجار
  • حقوق حیوانات
  • اخلاق اسلامی
  • رویکرد اسلامی
Armstrong, S., & Botzler, R.G. (2003). Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 53
Attfield, R. (2012). Ethics: An overview. London and New York: Continuum / Bloomsbury. 280.
 Aly R.)  2019 (You are what you Eid: Ramadan for vegans [Available from:
Allende, Eugene. . (1977) . Eugenfalden's travelogue. Hossein Nursadeghi translator.
Tehran: Ishraq.
 Alousi, Mahmoud bin Abdullah.  (1994) . The spirit of meanings in the interpretation of the  Qur'an alazim and the sabol -Mathani. Beirut: Dar al-Katb al-Alamiya.
Benjamin, Samuel Green Wheeler. (no date). Iran and Iranians, translated by Rahim Rezazadeh Malek. out of place
Barqi, Ahmed bin Khaled. (1992). Al-Mahasen. Qom: Dar al-Kitab al-Islamiya Publications.
Balwardi, Ali. (2021). Dissertation of Qajar period travel writers' reports on Iranian ethics based on Islamic ethics. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University.
Beigi, Ali, Esmaili Mehri, Hamid; (2018) Investigating the social ethics of Iranians in European travelogues. Number 5
Behnammanesh, S.H., & Omani, S.R. (2003). Animal status in the history of philosophy and ethics. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 5(2): 31. [Persian].
Behnam Menesh, Shima. Omani, Reza; The position of animals in the historical path of Western ethics and philosophy; Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History - April 2019; Number 2
Benatar, D. (2001). Why the Naive Argument against Moral Vegetarianism Really is Naive. Environmental Values. 10 (1): 103–112
Capizzi, J.E. (2008 ). Consciousness in human and nonhuman animals. National Catholic Bioethics Journal. 8(1): 32-42
Cherikov, Colonel. (1379 SH) Monsieur Cherikov's travelogue. translator Abkar Christian Tehran: Amir Kabir. Publishing House.
Flanden, Eugene. (1977). Eugene Flanden's travelogue. Translated by Hossein Noor Sadeghi. Tehran: Ishraq.
February, Joannes. (2006) Three years in Iran. Translated by Abbas Iqbal Ashtani. Tehran: World of books
Galamaga, A, (2010 ), Representations of Islam in Travel Literature in Early Modern England College University of Frankfurt (Main).  (Institut für England- und Amerikastudien). Term Paper (Advanced Seminar), 19.
Gary, S. Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents: The Moral Status of Animals in the History of Western Philosophy University of Pittsburgh . Pre.344.
Gruber, D. (2022). Europeans Encounter the World in Travelogues. 1450 –1900 http://ieg-ego. eu / en / threads / Europe - and - the - world / arts / doris - gruber –
George Curzon (1992). Iran and the case of Iran. Translated by Gholam Ali Vahid Mazandarani. Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
Europeans - encounter-the-world-in-travelogues-1450-1900
 Jamal, A.S. (1994). Victorian Images of the Arabs and Their Sources. Bethlehem University Journal. 13, 58-88.
  Hassanzadeh amoli .Hasan.(1999). Lessons on the interpretation of Fuss al-Hekam Qaysari. Qom: Bostan Kitab.
Hurr al-Amili.Mohammed.(2004). Al-Wasal al-Shia. Qom:El Al Bayt Publications.
Jahed, Mohsen (2012). Ethics and animals: theories and traditions. Quarterly Journal of Bioethics, third year, number 10
Javadi Mohsen, Masoudi, Asghar. (2012) Animal rights from an Islamic perspective, source: 4th year ethical research, number 2
 Javadi Mohsen, atrak Hossein. (2008) Ethical Theory of Qazi Abdul Jabbar Mu'tazili. Philosophical-theological researches. Volume 9, Number 1.
Jason, C.H. (2007). Animals, agency and class: Writing the history of animals from below. Human Ecology Review Journal. 14(1): 101-12.
Kayseri Rumi, Mohammad Dawood. (1996). Description of Fuss al-Hakm. Qom: First Scientific and Cultural Publishing Company.
Kazama, Aki O. (2001) The travelogue and memoirs of Aki Okaza, the first minister of Japan in Iran. Tehran Works and honors.Publishing House.
Köster, V. (2005). The assessment of animal welfare in tropical livestock production: Ethical and scientific issues. Berlin: Humboldt University of Berlin.497.
Minaei, Amir Abbas; Sadeghian, Nasser (2019). Comparative studies of animal rights based on Islamic teachings. Research Journal of Bioethics.
Muhyiddin, Ibn Arabi Muhammad) without date( . Al-Futuhat al-Makiyya. Beirut: Dar al-Esq.
Makarem Shirazi, Nasser. (2000). Qom: Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib School.
Mohammadi Rishahri, Mohammad. (2006). Encyclopaedia of medical hadiths: two volumes. Dar al-Hadith Scientific and Cultural Institute, Printing and Publishing Organization Place of publication: Qom.
Majlesi, Mohammad Baqer, Bihar Al-Anwar. (1936). Qom: Darul Kitab al-Islamiya.
Majchrowicz, D. (2023). The World in Words:Travel Writing and the Global Imaginationin Muslim South Asia. Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom
Owais, Mahin. (2000). Iranian culture in the European travelogues of the Qajar period of Shiraz. Tehran: Golestan Andisheh.
Preece, R., & Fraser, D. ( 2000). The status of animals in biblical and Christian thought: A study in colliding values. Journal of Society and Animal. 8(1): 245- 263
Roknzadeh, Seyyed Hassan. (2018) The moral dignity of animals from the point of view of Western, Muslim and Quranic thinkers with an emphasis on Al-Mizan's interpretation
Rezace, P. (2010). A look at animal rights from Nahjolabalghe perspective. Journal of Moral Knowledge. 3(1): 145-158. [Persian].
Sepanchi, Amir Abdul Reza. (2008). Culture and social communication from the point of view of European travel writers in the Qajar period. Magazine: Cultural Research Letter
Seyed Emami, Kavos. (2009). Ethics and environmental approach, Islamic. Tehran: Imam Sadegh University Press.
Siyuti, Abd al-Rahman bin Abi Bakr (1984) Al-Dor al-Manthur fi el-Tafsir al-Mathur. Qom: Ayatollah Marashi Library Publications.
Siori Heli. (1984). Ershad al-Talibeen ela Nahj al-Mustarshdin. Qom: Ayatollah Marashi Library Publications.
Sheil, Lady Merrill (1989, translated by Hossein Abu Tarabian. Tehran: New Publication.
Shaarani, Abul Hassan. )without date( . sharhe- tajridol etegaad  . Tehran: Islamic bookstore.
Shibani, Gene Rozfrancouz. (2007). Europe's trip to Iran, translated by Ziauddin Deshiri, Tehran: Shail Mari Translation and Publishing Company.
Sumner, L.W .(1988). Animal welfare and animal rights. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. 13(2): 75- 159.
Tahanwi, Muhammad Ali (1996). Encyclopedia of discovery terms of arts and sciences. Beirut: Lebanon School Nashron.
Taleghani, Mahmoud. (1984). A ray of the Qur'an. Tehran: Publishing Company.
Tabatabaei, Mohammad Hossein. (1988). Tafsir al-Mizan. Qom: Dar al-Kitab al-Islamiya Publications.
Wright, Dennis. (2006) Iranian among the English. Translated by Karim Emami. Tehran: Forozan No Publishing Institute.
 Wilson, Charles. (1984). Social history of Iran during the Qajar era. Tehran: Zarin.
Wills. (2008). Iran a century ago. Translated by Ghalam Hossein Karagozlu. Tehran: Iqbal.
Wolloch, N. (2008). Rousseau and the love of animals. Philosophy and Literature Journal. 32(2): 293- 302.
Zangwill, N. (2021). Our Moral Duty to Eat Meat. Journal of the American Philosophical Association. 7 (3): 295–311.
Ziyad oU. )2015(Vegetarian Dalam Timbangan Islam  [Available from: ttps://